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Mycology Glossary: A - B

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A

Acervulus (pl. Acervuli)
a mat of hyphae giving rise to short conidiophores closely packed together forming a bed-like mass.
acropetal
Acropetal
refers to spore formation where the most recently formed spore is at the tip of a chain of spores. Usually seen as being smaller than the immediate neighbour. Note that a continuous cytoplasmic link exists from base to tip (see basipetal).
Anamorph
the asexual stage in the life cycle of a pleomorphic fungus (see teleomorph). Usually applied to the septate fungi, where a seperate taxonomy has been developed. (Further information)
Anastomosis
fusion between hyphae of the same or different hyphae.
anastomosis example
Antagonism
in general, an association in which one organism damages another. Especially pertinent to where one produces a toxic compound (see barrage).
Apical
at the apex or end.
Aplanospore
see sporangiospore.
Apothecium
cup shaped ascocarp. Hymenium is exposed at maturity.
appressorium
Appressorium
a swelling on a germ tube or hyphae, often terminal, which may attach to the surface, especially in development of colonisation of a cell. See holdfast.
Arthrospore
asexual spore (conidium) formed by the conversion of a pre-existing hypha. Usually the walls thicken and the cell(s) separates before swelling of each spore. Sometimes further septa form in each cell prior to disarticulation. A specialised thallic conidium.
arthrospore
Ascocarp
a fruiting body containing one or more asci.
See apothecium.
See perithecium.
ascocarp example 1ascocarp example 2
Ascomycota
one of the four divisions within the Fungal Kingdom. Contains three classes, Laboulbeniomycetes, Protoascomycetes, Euascomycetes (see classification). Characterised by the formation of ascospores. More information
Ascospore
a sexual spore formed following meiosis in an ascus.
ascus
Ascus (asci)
a sac-like cell generally containing a definite number of ascospores, typically 8, formed after karyogamy and meiosis.
Ascus opening
refers to the manner the tip of the ascus opens during release of ascospores. May be a slit, pore or an operculum (see operculum).
ascus operculum openingascus pore openingascus slit opening
Aseptate
lacking cross walls in the hyphae (see septum).
aseptate hypha

Asexual
mitotic reproduction, not involving fusion of nuclei and meiosis, offspring the same as the single parent (see sporangiospore, conidium).
Azygospore
parthenogenetic zygospore.

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B

Barrage
space between two colonies of fungi which have an aversion for each other.
Basidiocarp
a fruiting body that bears basidia.
Basidiomycota
One of the four divisions within the Fungal Kingdom. Contains at least 8 classes including Ustomycetes, Urediniomycetes, and Euholobasidiomycetes (see classification). Characterised by the formation of basidiospores. More information
Basidiospore
a sexual spore formed following meiosis, borne on a basidium.
basidiospore
Basidium (basidia)
a structure bearing on its surface a definite number of basidiospores (usually four) that are formed following karyogamy and meiosis.
basipetal spores animation
Basipetal
refers to a spore that forms at the base of a chain, thus pushing the remainder of the chain away from the spore forming region (see acropetal). The animation (right) and the image below show basipetal spore development.
basipedal spore formation
Biotroph
parasitic fungus that exists in association with a living cell.
bitunicate ascus
Bitunicate
describing the walls of an ascus in which the two layers separate during ejection of the asci. The outer layer is rigid and brittle, and the inner flexible. Alternate to unitunicate where the layers are fused.
Blastic
related to formation of conidia, where the conidial initial enlarges prior to the formation of a septum separating the conidium from the conidiogenous cell (see blastospore).
Blastospore
spore formed following the marked enlargement of part of a cell before separation by a septum.

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