Skip Navigation

Mycology Glossary: C - M

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

C

Catenate (catenulate)
in chain, end to end.
Chitin
principle microfibrillar component of cell walls of fungi, composed of (1 - 4 ) linked polymer of N-acetyl-glucosamine. The compound is found in varying concentrations in nearly all fungi. It gives structural strength and shape to the cell and the microfibrills are usually located in the inner part of the wall.
Chitosan
a major fibrous component of walls of members of the Zygomycetes, and occasionally in structures of other fungi, composed of (1 - 4 ) linked polymer of glucosamine. It is unusual in that it has strong absorptive properties.
chytridmycote
Chytridiomycota
one of four divisions within the Fungal Kingdom. Contains one class Chytridiomycetes (see classification). More information
Clamp connection
a bridge-like hyphal connection between two adjacent cells, found only in some Basidiomycota.
clamp connection example 1clamp connection example 2
Class
fungal divisions are divided into classes. Classes are divided into orders (see classification).
Classification
placing items to groupings. (Of the fungi) The system used in this work follows that of the Fungi of Australia. The Kingdom Eumycota is divided into four divisions. Kingdoms Protoctista and Chromista are not considered further.
Table 1: The classification of Kingdom Eumycota into four divisions and their respective classes.
Kingdom: Eumycota
Division: Chytridiomycota Class: Chytridiomycetes
Division: Zygomycota Class: Zygomycetes
Class: Trichomycetes
Division: Ascomycota Class: Laboulbeniomycetes
Class: Protoascomycetes
Class: Euascomycetes
Division: Basidiomycota Class: Ustomycetes
Class: unnamed
Class: Urediniomycetes
Class: unnamed
Class: unnamed
Class: unnamed
Class: unnamed
Class: Euholobasidiomycetes
Columella (pl. columellae)
a sterile extension of the stalk into the sporangium of some zygomycetes.
columella
Commensal
two different organisms living together without mutual influence (c.f. symbiosis)
Conidiophore
a simple or branched hyphae arising from somatic hyphae which bears at its tip or sides, cells which form or become conidia.
conidiophore 1conidiophore 2conidiophore 3
Conidium (pl. conidia or conidiospore)
a nonmotile asexual spore formed on a conidiophore, formed from or as an extension of the hyphal walls. May be single or multicelled, simple or complex, round, elongated or spiral in shape. Found only in the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota (see arthrospore) (Further information)
different types of conidia
Crozier
the hook of an ascogenous hypha prior to formation of the ascus.
crozier example
Cystidium (cystidia)
a sterile cell found on the hymenium of some Basidiomycetes which usually protrudes beyond the other hymenial elements.

top

D

Dikaryon
a hypha or portion of hyphae which contains two haploid nuclei in each cell (see monokaryon, heterokaryotic).
Diploid
relates to the nucleus. Chromosomes are found in pairs, the members of each pair being homologous, resulting in twice the number of chromosomes found in haploid state. Characteristic state of the zygote.
Disperse
scatter about or disseminate propagules (viable spores) usually by means of a vector. More information
Division
used as the primary separation within the fungal kingdom. Four divisions are found including Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Divisions are divided into classes (see classification).
dolipore
Dolipore
a central pore in a septum surrounded by a barrel shaped swelling of the septal wall. Common in the Basidiomycetes (see pore).
Dormancy
resting state in which growth is absent and metabolism is relatively inactive. Common state for sclerotia, stroma and some spores. Usually broken by a specific trigger such as temperature, chemical stimulus or maturation.

top

E

Ectomycorrhiza
type of mycorrhiza in which fungal hyphae grow around the root and between cells of the epidermis. More information
Endophyte
general term to describe a fungus which lives within healthy plant tissue. May specifically refer to Balansioid fungi colonising grass leaves. More information
Epigean
above the ground.
eucarpic thallus
Eucarpic
the mature thallus is separated into reproductive and vegetative portions (see holocarpic)

top

F

Fission
form of asexual division in some yeasts in which the cell elongates and then separates along a median wall formed between the two halves.
Flagellum (pl. flagella)
fine long thread projecting from a cell having a lashing or undulating motion which enables the cell to move when in water. Two types discussed in the fungi, true fungi may have a whiplash flagellum and organisms now placed in the Chromista may have whiplash or tinsel flagella.
Folicolous
growing on leaves.

top

G

Gamete
a differentiated sex cell or nucleus that fuses with another in sexual reproduction.
Germ tube
hypha that emerges from a resting structure.

top

H

Haustorium
a specialised hyphal invagination of plant cells. Commonly found in biotrophic associations. Thought to be the site of uptake of organic nutrients by the fungus.
haustorium
Heterokaryotic
a mycelium which contains genetically different mating types.
Heterothallic
a fungus which requires two different mating types to form sexual fruiting bodies (see homothallic).
Holdfast
projection from the thallus which attaches the thallus to a surface, may be called an appressorium in the higher fungi.
Holocarpic
all the thallus is used for the fruit body (see eucarpic).
holocarpic
Holomorph
describes the entire fungus, sexual and asexual spores as well as the sterile mycelium.
Homothallic
a fungus which is self-fertile (see heterothallic).
Hyaline
colourless.
Hymenium
fertile layer of either basidia or asci.
Hypha (pl. hyphae)
tubular cell array found in most fungi. Consists of a wall surrounding cytoplasm within which cells may be separated by septa. Septa may have pores characteristic of each division or class.
Hypogean
below the ground (in reference to the formation of a fruiting body).

top

I

Imperfect stage
the asexual stage of a life cycle. The term is used extensively in older literature when referring to asexual states of ascomycota and basidiomycota. May also be called the anamorph, fungi imperfecti.

top

J

 

K

Karyogamy
fusion of two nuclei.

L

Lichen
an integrated association between either an alga or cyanobacterium with a fungus.

top

M

Merosporangium
a cylindrical sporangium.
Monocentric
refers to Chytrids only, having one centre for growth and reproduction.
Monokaryon
a hypha or portion of hyphae which contains one haploid nucleus in each cell.
Multinucleate
more than two nuclei in each cell. Common in some species of basidiomycota (e.g. Rhizoctonia solani).
Mycelium
mass of hyphae constituting the body of the thallus or fungus.
Mycophagy
the eating of fungi by animals.
Mycorrhiza
mutually beneficial association between plant root and fungus. More information
Mycosis
fungal infection of an animal.

top

Glossary A-B Glossary N-Z

Copyright © University of Sydney. Last updated June, 2004. Site construction and maintenance: eResources Unit. Email us here with your comments and feedback.
Validate XHTML Validate CSS