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Hyphal Structure Questions

Question 1

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Answer 1

A single thallus will consist, at most, of somatic, generative and survival hyphae.


Question 2

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Answer 2

Adventitious or secondary septa form in all filamentous fungi. In principle, the secondary septa enable separation of function within the thallus. They cut off dead parts of the thallus, thus preventing the loss of cytoplasm. They also separate spore forming structures from the rest of the thallus.


Question 3

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Answer 3

It is thought that cytoplasm moves either in vacuolar tubules, or through differences in osmotic pressure.


Question 4

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Answer 4

The thallus can become divided by secondary septa, which prevent movement of cytoplasm between the component parts. A single thallus can thus become divided into several parts with different functions in each.


Question 5

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Answer 5

The potential of a yeast cell to divide is limited to the surface area free of scars. Once the surface is covered by scars the cell is unable to divide further.


Question 6

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Answer 6

Turgor pressure within the cell provides the pressure to ensure expansion. Selective release of enzymes at the tip ensures turgor pressure is effective only in expanding controlled areas of the cell wall. As the tip is dissolved, the cytoskeleton moves wall elements into the region. The elements are laid down over the expanding region. The filamentous form is sustained by complete control over movement of component parts, turgor and digestion.


Question 7

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Answer 7

Some groups of Basidiomycetous fungi form different types of hyphae which are found in characteristic locations in complex structures. The most common type, called generative, have a typical morphology. They may be supported by skeletal hyphae which are thick walled and lack septa. Both types of hyphae may be bound together by binding hyphae, which are also thick walled, but are also highly branched.