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Basic Taxonomy Questions

Question 1

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Answer 1

Conidia. Ascospores are only found in the Ascomycota ("asco" - is a common root for both words that provides a hint for your answer). Check by examining the asexual state of the Ascomycota and you will find that conidia are formed.


Question 2

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Answer 2

Zygospores. Two divisions of fungi form septate hyphae and two form aseptate hyphae. Chytridiomycota rarely have a true thallus, so are essentially nonhyphal and can thus be dismissed. Members of Zygomycota form extensive mycelia. The hyphae are aseptate. Zygomycota form zygospores.

Sporangium of the Zygomycete, Rhizopus.


Question 3

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Answer 3

Basidiomycota. The diploid stage in Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota is in the spore only. Members of Ascomycota have a very short diploid stage during the formation of the crozier, which is in the hymenium. Some members of Basidiomycota have an extended diploid phase prior to the formation of the basidiocarp.


Question 4

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Answer 4

Clamp connections, dolipore septa, diploid nuclei and multilayered walls. You will need to check the description of hyphae of Ascomycotina to be certain. While not all members of the class have all these characteristics, presence of any one of them would tell you that the fungus belongs to Euholobasidiomycetes.


Question 5

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Answer 5

Zygomycota - zygospores, aseptate hyphae;

Ascomycota - ascospores, septate hyphae with simple pores.


Question 6

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Answer 6

This is a repeat of question 5. You search for clamp connections, dolipores in septa, multilayered walls of hyphae and diploid nuclei in each of the isolates from the rotting wood. If any one characteristic is present in an isolate, that must be a member of Euholobasidiomycete.


Question 7

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Answer 7

Zygomycota if the culture forms zygospores; Ascomycota if the culture forms ascospores; Basidiomycota if the culture forms basidiospores. As yeasts are single cells, hyphal characteristics are of limited value. If you can induce hyphae by changing growth conditions, then you can use hyphae. However, only if you can induce sexual stages will it be possible to determine division accurately. In most cases, the answer is impossible to derive.


Question 8

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Answer 8

Class Euholobasidiomcetes. Basidia are the sexual stage in division Basidiomycota. Three types of basidia are formed, undivided, divided and hyphal following germination of a teliospore. These characterise different classes, provided information on the nature of the septal pore and its parenthisome are also known. An undivided basidium is found in two classes, these have different parenthisomes. All members of the class have these characteristics, so identification of order is impossible.


Question 9

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Answer 9

Zygomycota: hyphae aseptate, asexual spores sporangiospores, sexual spores zygospores.

Ascomycota: hyphae septate, pores simple, asexual spores conidia, sexual spores ascospores.

Euholobasidiomycete: hyphae septate, dolipore with perforate parenthisome, clamp connection common, sexual basidiospores formed from an undivided basidium.